The first hospital in the region was probably the makeshift military hospital set-up at the Phelps County Courthouse during the Civil War. When the war ended, a group of doctors from Phelps, Dent, Crawford, Maries, Miller, Pulaski and Texas counties became the Rolla District Medical Society.
In the 1920s two hospitals were founded in Rolla: the US Trachoma Hospital and McFarland Hospital. McFarland hospital moved to several locations and ultimately closed in 1946. During that same year, the citizens of Phelps County passed a bond to secure finances and grants for a hospital, while the Rolla Lions Club purchased and donated the tract of land to build what would eventually become Phelps County Regional Medical Center.
On March 12, 1951, Phelps County Memorial Hospital opened with 63 beds, 65 employees and 21 medical staff members. The hospital grew over the years to become Phelps County Regional Medical Center, with 242+ beds and more than 1,600 employees.
- 1965: The hospital added 49 beds
- 1973: The hospital added 58 beds and a lobby
- 1977: The hospital added 26 beds, the ICU, Pediatric nursing and an ambulance garage
- 1981: Medical Oncology and the Stress Center were added
- 1987: Radiation Oncology was added
- 1993: The hospital added MRI and Cardiac Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Ambulatory Surgery, Rehabilitation Services, Maternity Services, the Emergency Department and Medical Imaging underwent expansions
- 1994: Acute Inpatient Rehabilitation Services was added
- 1996: The Psychiatric Unit was renovated to create the Center for Psychiatric Services along with the creation of the Phelps County Regional Health Care Foundation
- 1997: The Cardiac Catheterization Lab was added
- 1998: Home Health and Hospice Services were added
- 2003: The Emergency Department was renovated, Radiation Oncology, Physical Rehabilitation, Cardiac Rehabilitation and the laboratory were expanded.
- 2005: PCRMC opens new ICU
- 2007: PCRMC Medical Office Building added, PCRMC adds clinics in Waynesville, Cuba & Vienna
- 2008: PCRMC begins Medical Imaging Upgrade
- 2011: Delbert Day Cancer Institute was established
- 2012: PCRMC adds clinic in Salem